Augmented Reality Pedagogical Contributions Theme

Augmented Reality Learner Outcomes Theme

Augmented Reality Learner Outcomes Theme

This page features a summary of each theme cited in various research and includes expanded work from John Keller. You are reading Augmented Reality Learner Outcomes Theme.

“Learning is a social act, occurring through collaborative activity among more- and less-capable peers” (Vygotsky, 1978).

Augmented Reality Learner Outcomes Theme
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How may Augmented Reality (AR) affect learner outcomes?

AR may affect enhanced learning achievement, motivation, satisfaction, confidence, and spatial ability. Furthermore, research into how student attitude was affected, cognitive load and understanding.

One study, Harley, J., Poitras, E., Jarrell, A., Duffy, M., & Lajoie, S., 2016, found participants’ emotions influenced outcomes during their ‘underpowered’ and likely type II error experiment (Harley et al., 2016). However, the study provided an example of the theme learner ‘outcomes’.

The Potential of Instructional Technology A review

Enhancing Learning Achievement

Several authors claim students showed a positive attitude to their studies. However, is there simply a novelty effect in question? The newness of this technology introduced into an education system created excitement among students.

Spatial and continuity from multimedia learning theory confirm the authors’ results. Providing materials such as texts, videos, and images relevant help to reduce cognitive loads.

“aids enhancement over a real-world environment in real time.” – Vyas and Bhett, 2017


Through attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction. According to John Keller’s ARCS Model of Motivational Design Theories.


Attention can be gained in two ways:

Perceptual arousal

Inquiry arousal

Additional authors found students appeared more motivated using AR learning content on their own. Benefits of AR include immediate and relevant information, guidance to the student.


“Establish relevance in order to increase learner’s motivation.” – John Keller


This method was reported by students in the surveys claimed satisfaction when using AR over a traditional class lesson. However, these were less investigated by 2016 according to the authors.

“Learning must be rewarding or satisfying in some way, whether it is from a sense of achievement, praise from a higher-up, or mere entertainment.” – John Keller.


“Help students understand their likelihood for success.” – John Keller.

One research article referenced confidence making several recommendations about “user confidence in their smartphones.” – Authors Erica Chin, Adrienne Porter Fell, Vyas Sekar, David Wagner.

Little research material found by 2016 regarding student confidence. More research required or to be found in this round of literature review.

Spatial Ability

Only two articles by 2016 were found. More research required. There are many gaps in the literature available to complete all the research for AR!

Further exploring how student attitude was affected, cognitive load and understanding.

Augmented Reality Challenges and Technical Problems

My Virtual Classes

My Virtual Classes



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